The purpose of the Neuroprosthesis for Walking program is to discern the long-term benefits of FES therapy on walking function in incomplete spinal cord injury (ISCI) subjects. We have completed a pilot study, and the results are very promising. A significant improvement in walking speed and/or a reduction in the required use of assistive devices resulted after using a custom-designed neuroprosthesis two to five times weekly for 16 or more weeks. We are now conducting a randomized treatment-versus-control study to determine if the benefits truly resulted from FES usage. This study involves people with ISCI. Some subjects enter the study able to walk over ground, with or without supervision, and others require a body-weight support treadmill to perform walking motions. We hope our research will demonstrate that regular FES usage can induce permanent functional improvements, and help us to determine factors that indicate which patients can most benefit from the technology.